Supreme Court reporter Robert Barnes has a piece today about the role of Lochner v. New York in the ACA litigation. The Solicitor General told the Court at oral argument that invalidating the ACA would bring back Lochner, and last week President Obama said, “A law that was passed by Congress on an economic issue, like health care, that I think most people would clearly consider commerce — a law like that has not been overturned at least since Lochner.”
Of course, this is lots of fun for me, as my formerly obscure (to my relatives and friends) interest in Lochner now has some popular currency. (It shouldn’t hurt book sales, either).
But I wonder if raising Lochner is really helpful to the ACA’s proponents. First, liberals and conservatives mean two different things when they criticize “Lochner“. Barnes quotes me as follows:
“Liberals see the court as unduly interfering with progressive legislation meant to help people who needed it,” Bernstein said. “Conservatives draw a different lesson: They see it as a symbol of judicial activism,” creating a right beyond those enumerated in the Constitution.
The SG and president used Lochner in the former sense, but that doesn’t seem likely to sway the Court’s conservatives. Indeed, CJ Roberts jumped all over the SG when he suggested that the ACA challenge resembled Lochner: “It seems to me it’s an entirely different question when you ask yourself whether or not there are going to be limits on the federal power, as opposed to limits on the states, which was the issue in Lochner.” In other words, this is an enumerated powers case, not an unenumerated rights case, and therefore Lochner is irrelevant.
Moreover, to the extent that Justice Kennedy is likely to be the swing vote, he seems perhaps the least likely Justice to be swayed by accusations of “Lochnering.” Kennedy is, I think, the only Justice who has had dissenters from both left and right accuse him of repeating Lochner’s mistakes. Just last term, in Sorrell v. Vermont, Justice Breyer twice raised Lochner in his dissent to Justice Kennedy’s majority opinion. Back in 2003, Justice Scalia, dissenting from Kennedy’s opinion in Lawrence v. Texas, suggested that the Fourteenth Amendment no more protects the right to engage in homosexual sodomy than it does the right to “work more than 60 hours per week in a bakery” (alluding to the facts of Lochner).
Kennedy is also the least shy “conservative” Justice about relying on the Fourteenth Amendment to protect economic rights, the underlying “sin” of Lochner for both left and right. Unlike Thomas and Scalia, he happily joins opinions invalidating state punitive awards as violating the due process clause. And then there’s his lone opinion in Eastern Enterprises v. Apfel, in which he wrote, “Although we have been hesitant to subject economic legislation to due process scrutiny as a general matter, the Court has given careful consideration to due process challenges to legislation with retroactive effects.” He then proceeded to argue that the legislation in question fails a due process analysis.
So I’m not sure what the strategy of raising Lochner is supposed to accomplish, but it doesn’t seem well designed to get the government five votes in the ACA litigation.