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Is Latin a Dead Language?

In this opinion released today, Judge Boyce Martin of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit declares that Latin is a "dead language" (in footnote 5). Judge Alice Batchelder begs to differ. Her opinion concurring in the judgment reads:

I concur in Judge Martin's opinion. I write separately only to express my suspicion that, like the reports of Mark Twain's death, see The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Third Edition, 2002), the report of the death of Latin in the majority opinion's footnote 5 is greatly exaggerated.

anonVCfan:
Stupid judges. Now that we're in the internet age, why don't they post pictures of their cats in the footnotes too.

[Majority opinion]
5. [2" x 3" picture] Isn't Mr. Whiskers cute?

Batchelder, J., dissenting in part:

I concur in Judge Martin's opinion. I write separately to express my view that Mr. Whiskers is not, in fact, cute, and that Judge Martin should have recused himself from consideration of that question in light of his ownership of Mr. Whiskers. Below is a picture of my dog, but I will reserve comment on the question of his cuteness.
8.30.2007 10:56am
Stevethepatentguy (mail) (www):
Lingua lente augescent cito extinguuntur.

With appologies to Tacitus.
8.30.2007 11:10am
DCraig:
sed Mr. Whiskerus bello est!
(I think you use dative of indirect object there.. it's been so long...)
8.30.2007 11:11am
W. J. J. Hoge:
Se damnat iudex, innocentem qui opprimit.
8.30.2007 11:11am
James Fulford (mail):



Because collateral estoppel precludes future litigation of one specific issue, and because that is what the state effectively asks us to find, we construe their argument as one for collateral estoppel rather than res judicata, despite the substitution of one term for the other in the state’s brief.(5)

(5)Latin is a dead language anyway.


It takes special legal training to think that "res judicata" is in a dead language, but "collateral estoppel" isn't.
8.30.2007 11:12am
LotharoftheHillPeople:
Judges are not funny.
8.30.2007 11:16am
Cornellian (mail):
Of course Latin is a dead language. There are no communities of people anywhere who live and work in Latin.

Res judicata is sometimes used in the narrow sense of claim preclusion and sometimes more loosely to refer to both claim preclusion and issue preclusion (i.e. collateral estoppel) hence the state was being imprecise with its terminology.
8.30.2007 11:25am
Sean O'Hara (mail) (www):
So she's arguing that Latin is as alive as Mark Twain?
8.30.2007 11:28am
Bama 1L:
The case was a bit more interesting than the footnotes would indicate. . . .
8.30.2007 11:29am
James Grimmelmann (mail) (www):
Rident stolidi verba Latina.
8.30.2007 11:32am
Roy Haddad (mail):
Latin is undead.
8.30.2007 11:34am
RL:
Semper ubi sub ubi
8.30.2007 11:34am
ak47pundit (www):
Latin is a language as dead as dead can be.
First it killed the Romans and now its killing me.

-Theme Song of Latin 101.
8.30.2007 11:39am
Tony Tutins (mail):
Sign over the cafeteria: Fidem scit.
8.30.2007 11:50am
Positroll (mail):
Of course Latin is a dead language. There are no communities of people anywhere who live and work in Latin.
How about the Status Civitatis Vaticanae?
Sure, they often speak Italian in daily life, but still ...
8.30.2007 11:55am
Armen (mail) (www):
Romani ite domum.
8.30.2007 11:59am
Steve:
It's nice to see the Sixth Circuit enjoying a little collegiality for once.
8.30.2007 12:13pm
Justin (mail):
I agree with anonVC. I have great respect for Judge Batchelder, but the people in front of her are arguing issues that are really important to them, and often about freedom and life and death. While I know she actually gives their cases the seriousness they deserve, there's something to be said about doing the best to make that seriousness apparent to everyone, rather than just those that know her. It's no problem to have these discussions in chambers, of course. But this is not the kind of disagreement one wants to see in an opinion of great importance to them - nor does someone on the intimate details of their case being delivered all over the internet just because of some irrelevant academic curiosity. Now granted, this case does not appear to have the world's most serious parties, and this type of action is not nearly as inappropriate as the famous "ode to baseball" footnote. But dignity goes beyond the parties to the case - it impacts the judiciary as a whole.

(And note: this is meant to be an explanation of disapproval, not a call for any response, censure, etc. What Judge Batchelder did was perfectly acceptable behavior, I just would prefer judges not indulge themselves like that).
8.30.2007 12:17pm
Justin (mail):
PS - I also realize i've laughed at a lot of judicial decisions before, and I'm not sure why I feel like being so uptight today. It's morning and I haven't had a day off of work in a while. Or maybe I'm just getting old. Or maybe I felt in some other cases (rock paper scissors, the incomprehensible brief) I just felt the lawyers deserved it.
8.30.2007 12:18pm
Maniakes (mail):
Latin is undead.

Cerebraaaaa!
8.30.2007 12:22pm
PEG (mail) (www):
You curmudgeons! That's awesome!
8.30.2007 12:23pm
Hoosier:
Positril made my point: The Vat (and its state, the Holy See) functionally are Latin speakers. In addition, there are academic institutes in Rome that teach and write in Latin. (The Gregorian; the Anselianum, ecc.)

It's not dead.
8.30.2007 12:25pm
PersonFromPorlock:
Is 'dead' enough to exclude Latin from government? Mel Carnahan won a Senate seat in a like condition.
8.30.2007 12:25pm
CEB:

why don't they post pictures of their cats in the footnotes too.


Their clerks couldn't figure out how to write "Im in ur futnotes, waistin ur time" in Latin.
8.30.2007 12:29pm
Phantom:
CEB wins the thread.

--PtM
8.30.2007 12:39pm
abb3w:
French, Italian, Spanish, and the other romance languages are all little more than bastard dialects of Latin. English is almost half from Latin roots (German makes up most of the rest).

To quote my old Latin teacher, "Latin is not dead; it has merely ceased to be mortal."
8.30.2007 12:42pm
Steve:
I have great respect for Judge Batchelder, but the people in front of her are arguing issues that are really important to them, and often about freedom and life and death.

It's a stripper suing for the right to ply her trade in an establishment that serves liquor, something (tragically) prohibited in Michigan. While I understand that the case is important to her as a commercial matter, she won the appeal, so I doubt she's offended. I certainly hope the State of Michigan's feelings won't be too injured by the inappropriate aside.

If this were a capital case or something, I'd share your concern, but it's not. And I don't often see the appellate courts joking around on life or death matters, to tell the truth.
8.30.2007 12:52pm
Tony Tutins (mail):
I think Judge Batchelder could successfully assert the playground defense that "Judge Martin started it," with his irrelevant footnote 5.
8.30.2007 12:59pm
kevin r (mail):
Quidquid latine dictum sit, altum sonatur.
8.30.2007 1:16pm
DeezRightWingNutz:
Does this mean I can now go to any strip club in Michigan and get alcohol and see (fully) nude dancing? Injunctions don't apply to anyone besides the party to the case do they?

Also, since nudity isn't expressive but nude dancing is, does that mean that the dancers are only protected so long as they keep gyrating? Do they have to keep dancing while putting their clothes back on?
8.30.2007 1:30pm
Zathras (mail):
The quibble over the status of the Latin didn't strike me nearly as much as the superfluous citation in the concurrence for the reference to reports on Twain's death being greatly exaggerated.
8.30.2007 1:33pm
r78:

French, Italian, Spanish, and the other romance languages are all little more than bastard dialects of Latin. English is almost half from Latin roots (German makes up most of the rest).

The "latin roots" theory is to linguistics what "evolving from apes" is to anthropology.
8.30.2007 1:38pm
Hoosier:
ARMEN--

People called Romani, they go the 'ouse? What's that mean?
8.30.2007 1:56pm
BobH (mail):
Hoosier points out, "The Vat (and its state, the Holy See) functionally are Latin speakers."

When I was in the Army Security Agency, many years ago, I knew a sergeant who had been stationed at a base I won't name that was in the business of listening to overseas telephone calls. (WHAT??!?) He said that one of the folks listening -- folks trained to recognize various languages -- shouted out, "Anybody recognize this?" The sarge, who had been an alterboy in his youth, listened in. The call (as he remembered it when he recounted the story) was from a cardinal in New York City to somebody in the Vatican, to discuss the finer points of a recently-released papal document of some sort. After exchanging pleasantries in English they switched into Latin and carried on the rest of the conversation in that not-yet-dead language.
8.30.2007 2:16pm
Cornellian (mail):
French, Italian, Spanish, and the other romance languages are all little more than bastard dialects of Latin. English is almost half from Latin roots (German makes up most of the rest).

Any linguists here who can comment on this? Of course French, Spanish and Italian are all derived from Latin but I had always understood French to be much more of a divergence than the other two, certainly well beyond "little more than [a] bastard dialect of Latin."

And English is an entirely different story altogether, a sort of buffet vocabulary overlaying a simplified Germanic grammar. The history of English is a fascinating story all by itself.
8.30.2007 2:16pm
Hoosier:
Cornellian--I'm not a professional linguist, but it's a hobby. And yes, you're right about French being the member of the "Big Three" Romance Languages that diverged most from Latin. Italian comes closest, not surprisingly, in terms of vocabulary. (One can still greet a Roman with "Salve!")

But "dialects" have to be mutually intelligible. The /grammar/ of all three languages has diverged tremendously from the Vulgar Latin (which is close the type of Latin spoken by the Catholic Church when it speaks officially). For instance, nearly all inflection of nouns for case has disappeared. All three of these thus require an analytical syntax and a lot more usage of prepositions. (In Classical Latin, word order was pretty much a matter of style. "Cartago delenda est"; "Delenda est Cartago"; I've even seen "Est delenda Cartago.")

And English . . . really fascinating. The only major Indo-European language without construct gender (except for ships and, sometimes, nations I guess . . .); that alone makes English cool.
8.30.2007 2:30pm
Happyshooter:
Res judicata is sometimes used in the narrow sense of claim preclusion and sometimes more loosely to refer to both claim preclusion and issue preclusion (i.e. collateral estoppel) hence the state was being imprecise with its terminology.

Michigan's State Supreme Court has ordered the use of the terms in their proper meaning and has banned the use of the terms 'issue preclusion' and 'claim preclusion'
8.30.2007 2:31pm
Just Dropping By (mail):
Michigan's State Supreme Court has ordered the use of the terms in their proper meaning and has banned the use of the terms 'issue preclusion' and 'claim preclusion'

Interesting. Colorado's Supreme Court nearly does the opposite: it insists on using "issue preclusion" and "claim preclusion" and chides parties for using collateral estoppel or res judicata.
8.30.2007 2:44pm
Bama 1L:
The /grammar/ of all three languages has diverged tremendously from the Vulgar Latin (which is close the type of Latin spoken by the Catholic Church when it speaks officially).

I can't think of any grammatical differences between Classical Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin. I think Vulgar Latin would be spotted by features such as nominative absolutes, datives showing up in all sorts of places, redundant prepositions, and replacement of certain verb inflections by auxiliary verbs. Plus bad spelling, of course. These would all be as out of place in a contemporary papal bull or Latin missal as they would have been in Cicero's letters or Horace's poetry.

Ecclesiastical Latin is effectively the grammar of Cicero (particularly) applied to a directed vocabulary and pronounced pretty much like Italian.
8.30.2007 2:47pm
Lewis Maskell (mail):
Horace says it best, in his final poem in his third book of Odes. Indeed, the entire poem today reads like a statement of achievement for the entire Latin language. My favoutire parts are:

"A monument, more durable than brass
And higher than the pyramids that stand
Laid out for kings, I’ve built with pen in hand,
Which neither greedy rain nor frantic thrash
Of wind can overthrow, nor flights of years
Unnumbered, nor the seasons’ gyring gears.
I shall not wholly die, but cheat the lash
Of Death in greater part: for future tongues
Shall cultivate my praise,..."

The Perseus Library translation, which is rather literal, or a somewhat more readable translation (from which I quoted) here.
8.30.2007 2:54pm
Latinist:
Latin's not dead. . . it's just declined.
8.30.2007 2:56pm
Edward A. Hoffman (mail):
Latin may not be dead, but VCers should know that it is being supplanted by Yiddish in the legal vernacular.
8.30.2007 3:13pm
Zathras (mail):
Bama1L, the biggest difference between ecclesiastical Latin and classical Latin (other than pronunciation) was word order. Ecclesiastical Latin has a fairly consistent subject-verb, noun-adjective word order that belongs to most Romance languages today. As far as word order for classical Latin, it was pretty much anything goes (and it gets more and more random as you look at older and older texts).
8.30.2007 3:29pm
Hoosier:
Bama 1L--Zathras has it right. Syntax in Ecc. Latin is /easy-peasy/. Ciceronian Latin has a cruel, evil syntax. German academics copied the word-order of Ciceronian Latin when their universities started publishing more in German. So if you've read academic German, you know how different it is from spoken German. The Church Latin/Classical Latin distinction is comparable to this, I suppose.

As for 'random' word order: Yeah. It's amazing that second year HS Latin students seem always to read Caesar. He was just plain weird when it comes to writing style.
8.30.2007 3:54pm
Freddy Hill:
Yes, they speak Latin at the Vatican, but with the low birthdate they have over there, I suspect there are few babies learning the language.
8.30.2007 4:00pm
Hoosier:
Were any of you forced to sing songs like:

"Latin loves me, yes I know/
For my teacher tells me so . . "

or the always-catchy "Agricola, agricolae, agricolae/agricolae, agricolam/agricola in singular/ -ae, -arum, -is, -as, -is!" ?

If so, WHY?
8.30.2007 4:04pm
Phantom:
Agricola? Isn't that a throat lozenge?

--PtM
8.30.2007 4:14pm
Tony Tutins (mail):
Latin ... being supplanted by Yiddish

The number of Schmucks cited should not be surprising; Schmuck means "Jewel" in German. Only when it was imported into Yiddish did it become pejorative (Family(?) jewel = prick, essentially, I'm guessing.) Jewell is a common enough English name: the news reports Atlanta's Richard Jewell died on Wednesday.
8.30.2007 4:28pm
Dave N (mail):
A thread with 49 posts (counting this one) debating whether Latin is "dead" amply demonstrates that it is not.
8.30.2007 4:38pm
Daniel San:
r78: The "latin roots" theory is to linguistics what "evolving from apes" is to anthropology.

A bit more recent. By the 8th century, the three Romance languages had diverged to be mutually incomprehensible, but were still considered the same language. By the 12th century, it had been forgotten that they ever were the same language and scholars had to figure out that they must have a common root in Latin. (I think I have my dates vaguely accurate).
8.30.2007 4:56pm
Felix Sulla:
I was always given to understand that the Romansh dialects were the closest surviving approximation of Vulgar Latin.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romansh
8.30.2007 5:10pm
Smokey:
The real reason that Latin is so important in the legal realm is because the average jamoke doesn't understand a bit of it; Latin usage probably accounts for at least $20 - 30/hr in attorney fees.
8.30.2007 5:20pm
Aleks:
Re: By the 8th century, the three Romance languages had diverged to be mutually incomprehensible

I have seen it claimed that the purely spoken dialects of the Romance lanmguages (except Romanian which is isolated by Slavic speakers) gradually phase into one another as one travels from, say, Lisbon to Madrid to Barcelona, then north through France, then back south again into and through Italy; so there is never a abrupt border where the people cannot understand the speakers in the next village. Though this may be less true now that broadcast media and public schooling forces people into the straitjacket of the formal, official language (usually what is spoken in the nieghborhood of the capital)
8.30.2007 5:20pm
cat hater:
Mr. Whiskers delenda est!
8.30.2007 5:25pm
Zathras (mail):
Hoosier, we didn't have any songs; we were just challenged to do speed declensions/conjugations/synopses. I remember trying to race someone in "sum es est sumus estis sunt," and we were timed at under 1/2 a second each. Don't ask me why--it can only be ascribed to the ability of boys (I went to a boy-only school) to be competitive about anything under the sun.
8.30.2007 5:31pm
Peter K. (mail):
Latin is only "dead" in the same sense that English is dead. If someone many centuries ago had attempted to preserve "English" as then current or resurrect "English" as it had existed in the past, that language would have stayed the one known as English while the language in which this is written would be called something else.

I believe it was under Charlemagne that the attempt to teach "Latin" as a language began. In the process, and as a consequence, Latin was segregated and distinguished from the many Romantic languages into which it had evolved.

So that "Latin" is dead, just as Old English is dead. But both live on, evolved to be currently useful.
8.30.2007 5:50pm
Zacharias (mail):
Munich 1972.

She was beautiful, Catholic, Italian. Spoke no English.
I was handsome, atheist, Amerikan. Spoke no Italian.

What we had in common were Latin and the passions of youth. Wow! How my language prof mother would have been proud of my ability to make hay out of a "dead language."

Now much older, having studied law, I have wild dreams of making love while exchanging phrases such as "consensus facit legem" et "contraceptiva duces tecum?".
8.30.2007 6:00pm
Hoosier:
"Amerikan"?
Che cosa è questo 'Amerikan'?
8.30.2007 6:11pm
CJColucci:
Hoosier:
I took two years of Latin decades ago, and have always wondered about word order. I know word order has no grammatical consequence, but I've always assumed that in actual use it wasn't entirely arbitrary. Was there some "normal" way to put a sentence together?
8.30.2007 6:14pm
Rubber Goose (mail):
On the other part of Judge Batchelder's comment: isn't the phrase "the report of the death of [x] is greatly exaggerated" so overused now as to be a bad cliche? My first thought on reading it wasn't about the death,life, or undead status of Latin, but just "ah, geez, that darn Twain quote again."
8.30.2007 7:44pm
Joshua Holmes (mail) (www):
My grandfather sired 5 sons, one of whom sired me. My grandfather is dead. He does not live just because his sons and grandsons do.

In like fashion, Latin sired more languages and dialects than I could hope to name. But the existence of French is not the existence of Latin. Latin is dead.

The Catholic Church does still use it as an administrative language, but anything published in Latin is alos published in English, Italian, German, Spanish, French, and probably a dozen other languages. Which one gets read? Is Latin alive because one religion writes treatises in it that no one reads?
8.30.2007 9:44pm
Bama 1L:
Ecclesiastical Latin has a fairly consistent subject-verb, noun-adjective word order that belongs to most Romance languages today. As far as word order for classical Latin, it was pretty much anything goes (and it gets more and more random as you look at older and older texts).

That's a difference without a distinction. There's no rule in either case, just a preference. Caesar could understand one of John Paul II's encyclicals (except for neologisms) and John Paul II could, of course, understand Caesar's works.

The point is that the vast heap of simplifications we would call Vulgar Latin were not carried into Ecclesiastical Latin but instead into the Romance languages.

I believe it was under Charlemagne that the attempt to teach "Latin" as a language began. In the process, and as a consequence, Latin was segregated and distinguished from the many Romantic languages into which it had evolved.

Exactly so! Latin had been developing organically but Charlemagne's ecclesiastical reformers insisted on returning to classical standards.
8.30.2007 9:50pm
Bama 1L:
Somehow I dropped a sentence:

Caesar would probably regard the encyclical as artlessly composed, although gramatically sound.
8.30.2007 9:52pm
Christopher (mail):
I hope not. I just ordered Harry Potter latin editions.
8.30.2007 11:42pm
Hoosier:
"The point is that the vast heap of simplifications we would call Vulgar Latin were not carried into Ecclesiastical Latin but instead into the Romance languages . . ."

"In principio erat Verbum": I think the word "Vulgate" is the problem here, Bama.
You write about what "we would call Vulgar Latin". But I don't think that you and I are using the term in the same way. I'm speaking of the language of the Biblia Sacra Vulgata, which indeed is close to Church Latin.

You are speaking of the theoretical language that is the root of modern Romance Languages. This would have come quite a bit later, and, one assumes, would have contained the "heap of simplifications" that you mention. But Vulgar Latin has multiple meanings. And the Common Latin of the Biblia is still heavilly inflected. I assume this is one of the major simplifications you allude to when writing of the later Common (spoken) Latin.
8.31.2007 12:04am
Armagh444 (www):
Any linguists here who can comment on this? Of course French, Spanish and Italian are all derived from Latin but I had always understood French to be much more of a divergence than the other two, certainly well beyond "little more than [a] bastard dialect of Latin."


Cornellian, I know I'm coming to the party late, so someone may have already answered this, but . . .

While I'm not a professional linguist, I did have training in Latin and French in high school and college and have specifically discussed the divergence of French with a scholar who knows a lot more about the subject than your average layman, so I may be able to address your question. (I'm sure if I'm wrong, someone will correct me.)

My understanding regarding the divergence (and there certainly is a marked divergence, especially when you compare it to the divergence with Italian or Spanish) is that it can be chalked up to heavy contact with and adoption from the Celtic language spoken in Gaul, and more importantly, by the early inhabitants of Brittany. I don't recall off the top of my head whether the Celtic language in question was a P-Celtic or Q-Celtic language, so I have no idea if the flavor of the divergence would feel more Welsh or Gaelic, but there you have it.
8.31.2007 12:36am
David Chesler (mail) (www):
Silly footnote. Agreed with first comment and with Phantom's appraisal of CEB. But see the article cited in the baseball yarmulkes note for a relatively modern use of conversational Latin.
8.31.2007 12:51am
James Fulford (mail):
This is from A. P. Herbert's Uncommon Law, and I found some of it on the Laudator Temporis Acti blog. Herbert was complaining about the New Pronunciation of Latin, aka Cambridge Latin, and the possibility of it making an appearance in court:after a barrister used the terms "neesee of kairtiorahree (nisi of certiorari), ooltrah weerayze (ultra vires), day yooray (de jure), pahree pahsoo (pari passu), preemah fakiay (prima facie), yoos waynahndee et piscahndee (jus venandi et piscandi), soob poynah (sub poena), and noan possoomooss (non possumus)" in the face of the court, the Judge was forced to say, "I cannot hear you," not because the barrister was improperly dressed, or not being upstanding, but because he couldn't understand him.




In the legal profession, above all others, the Latin tongue is a living force, a priceless aid to precision of thought, to verbal economy and practical efficiency. Any knowing business man who mocks the study of the 'dead' languages has only to sit in our Courts for an hour or two to learn how far from dead the Latin language is; and if he still regards its use as the elegant foible of a number of old fogies I hope that he will try to translate into a few brief businesslike words such common phrases as a priori, de jure, ultra vires, ex parte, status quo and many others. We have taken these words from Rome, as we have taken much of her law, and made them English.
8.31.2007 1:12am
res estoppel:
I thought this was silly until I actually looked at the case. Judge Martin's footnote 5 -- the stand-alone observation that "Latin is a dead language anyway" -- is legally irrelevant and more than a little odd. It beckons a response. He is lucky the concurring judge was so jovial about it. She could just as easily have said, "I concur separately because I do not want to join an opinion that substitutes snark for sound legal reasoning."
8.31.2007 1:29am
Bama 1L:
Hoosier--

Yes, you identified the problem perfectly. I wouldn't consider the Vulgate an example of Vulgar Latin. But if we do, then certainly what you argue follows.
8.31.2007 10:18am
Happyshooter:
I thought this was silly until I actually looked at the case. Judge Martin's footnote 5 -- the stand-alone observation that "Latin is a dead language anyway" -- is legally irrelevant and more than a little odd. It beckons a response.

I think he was trying to soften the blow of pointing out that the AG confused the elements of RJ and CE.
8.31.2007 11:00am
Derek:
I'm surprised no one has gotten the correct answer to this yet. Latin is a "dead" language because new words are no longer added to it (because it does not really have a group of daily users). The definition is really very simple.
8.31.2007 11:19am
Hoosier:
No new words being added? How about:
Quomodo Invidiosulus nomine GRINCHUS Christi natalem Abrogaverit
8.31.2007 12:14pm
Hoosier:
BTW--Is Klingon a dead language?
8.31.2007 12:23pm
Seamus (mail):
Latin is a "dead" language because new words are no longer added to it (because it does not really have a group of daily users).

The Vatican constantly adds new words to the Latin language. Otherwise, they'd have no way to issue official documents referring to nuclear weapons, television, or the Internet.
8.31.2007 2:01pm
moth (mail) (www):

Latinist:
Latin's not dead. . . it's just declined.

(groan)
I hate you. That was horrible.

(and by hate you, I mean I wish I thought of this first)
8.31.2007 9:02pm
Edward A. Hoffman (mail):
Aleks wrote:
I have seen it claimed that the purely spoken dialects of the Romance lanmguages (except Romanian which is isolated by Slavic speakers) gradually phase into one another as one travels from, say, Lisbon to Madrid to Barcelona, then north through France, then back south again into and through Italy; so there is never a abrupt border where the people cannot understand the speakers in the next village.
I have known several Romanians who never studied Italian but who can understand spoken Italian quite well. I don't know if Italians are similarly able to understand Romanian.
8.31.2007 11:10pm
Lawyer (mail) (www):
Yes, If this were a capital case or something, I'd share your concern, but it's not. And I don't often see the appellate courts joking around on life or death matters, to tell the truth.
9.4.2007 12:42am