One tactic of the Peruvian government, in its war against the Maoist terrorist organization that called itself "El Sendero Luminoso" (The Shining Path), was to supply arms to village militias which had already formed spontaneously. These village militias were known as "Rondas."
Sometimes Rondas created their own parallel judicial system, outside the formal legal system. Yet their community defense was very consistent with the Peruvian Constitution, which declares that the protection of the human person (a term from Catholic thought) is the supreme objective of the state, and that every person has the right to legitimate defense:
art. 1: “La defensa de la persona humana y el respeto de su dignidad son el fin supremo de la sociedad y del Estado.” art 2: “Toda persona tiene derecho:…§ 23. A la legítima defensa.”However, the Rondas were also charged with human rights violations.
A similar policy is currently being implemented in southern Thailand, where the government has been supplying defensive arms to village militias for protection from Islamic terrorists. (The Thai situation is discussed at page 17 of my forthcoming article in the Connecticut Law Review, "Pretend 'Gun-Free' School Zones: A Deadly Legal Fiction."
I would like to learn more about Rondas. Well-informed commenters are invited to recommend sources in either English or Spanish.